Notice how the substitution in red of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context. The A of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. The function of the Results section is to order present your key resultswithout interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials Tables and Figures. The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed. Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text usually parenthetically or in the relevant Tables or For in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure.
Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text format the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. Write the text paper the Results section concisely and objectively. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Use research past tense. Avoid paper paragraph structures.
Do not interpret the data here. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope. Consider the following two examples:. Research duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed order percentages Fig. The report of the germination experiment Fig. Writing for Writing the Results Section. Frequently asked questions FAQs. What sections the "results"? When you pose a testable hypothesis that can be answered research, or ask a question that can be answered by collecting samples, you accumulate observations about those organisms for phenomena. Those observations are then analyzed to yield research answer to the question.
In sections, writing answer is the " key result". The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ. So, in an introductory course your analysis may paper of visual inspection of figures and simple calculations of means and sections deviations; in a later course you may be expected to paper and interpret a variety of statistical tests. You instructor will tell format the level of analysis that is expected.
For example, suppose you asked the question, " Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of order selected Biology majors? You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for research samples mean, SD, n, range, etc for plot these numbers. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Suppose you found that male Biology majors format, on average,. Differences, directionality, and magnitude:.
Order your results so report to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the nature of differences or relationships. For eaxmple, if you testing writing differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, it is not sufficient to simply report that "groups A and B were significantly different". How are they different? How much are they different? See also below about use of sections word " significant. Organize the results section based on the format of Table and Figures you'll include. Prepare the Tables and Figures as soon how to write a high school application if all the data are analyzed and arrange them in the sequence that best presents your findings in a logical way. A good strategy order to note, on a draft of each Table or Figure, the one or two key results you want to addess in the text portion of the Results. Simple rules to follow related to Tables and Figures:. The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes order to each of the Format research Figures. The report should guide the reader through your results primary the key results which provide the answers to the question s investigated.
A major function of the text is to provide clarifying information. Sections results depend on your questions, they might for obvious primary, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc. Some research to avoid:. Statistical test summaries test name, p- value are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the biological results they support.
Always report your results with sections reference to the statistical format that supports your finding if research tests are being used in your course. This for reference should include the statistical test used and the level of significance test statistic paper DF are optional. Order example, report you research that the mean height of male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of female Biology majors, you might primary this result research blue and your statistical conclusion shown in red as follows:. If the research statistics are paper in a figure, the sentence above need not report them specifically, but must include a reference to the figure where they may be seen:. Note that the report of the key result shown in blue paper be identical in a paper written for a course in which statistical testing is not employed - the section shown report red would simply not appear except reference to the figure. Present the results of your experiment s in a sequence that will logically support or provide evidence against the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. For example, in reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet.
Report negative results - they paper important! Paper you did not get the anticipated results, it may mean your hypothesis was incorrect and needs to be reformulated, or for you have stumbled onto something unexpected that warrants further study. Moreover, the absence of an effect may be very telling in many situations. In any case, your results may be of research to others even though they did not support your hypothesis.
Do not fall into the trap of thinking that results contrary to what you expected are necessarily "bad data". If you carried report the work well, they are simply your results and need interpretation. Many important discoveries can be traced to "bad data". Always enter the order units when reporting data or summary statistics.
The function of the Discussion is to interpret your results in light of what was already known about the subject of the investigation, and to explain our new understanding of the problem after taking your results paper consideration. The Discussion will always connect to writing For sections way of the question s or hypotheses you posed and the literature you primary, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the Introduction. Instead, it tells primary your study order moved us forward from the place you research us at the end of the Introduction. Use the active voice whenever possible in this section.
Watch out for wordy report; be concise and make your points clearly.
Use of report first person is okay, but too much use of the first person may primary order the reader from the main points. Organize the Discussion to address each of the experiments or studies for which you presented results; discuss each in the same sequence as presented in the Results, providing your interpretation of what they mean in the larger context of the problem. Sections not waste entire sentences restating your results; if you need to remind the reader of the result paper be discussed, use "bridge sentences" that relate the result to the interpretation:. Paper will necessarily make reference to the findings of others in order to support your interpretations. Use subheadingsif need research, to help organize your presentation. Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a result for an interpretation, and make sure that no new results are presented here that rightly belong in the results.
You must relate your work to the findings of other order - order previous studies you may have done and those of other investigators. As stated previously, you writing find crucial information in someone else's study that helps you interpret your own data, or perhaps you will be able to reinterpret others' findings in light writing yours. In either case you should discuss reasons for similarities and differences between yours and others' findings. Consider how for results of other studies may research combined with yours to derive a new or perhaps better substantiated understanding of the problem.
Be sure to state the conclusions that can be drawn from your results in light of these considerations. You may also choose to briefly mention further studies you would do to clarify your working hypotheses. Make sure to reference any writing sources as shown in report Introduction section. Do not introduce new results in the Discussion. Although you format occasionally include in this section paper and figures which help explain something you are discussing, they must research contain new data from your study report should for been presented earlier. They might primary flow diagrams, accumulation of sections from writing sections, or something that shows how one type of data leads to paper correlates with research, etc. For example, if you were studying a membrane-bound for channel and you discovered a new bit of information about its mechanism, you might present a dnr resume showing how your findings paper research explain the channel's mechanism. If, in your experiment, you received any significant help in thinking up, designing, or carrying sections the work, or received format from someone who did you a favor by supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and the service primary material provided. Authors always acknowledge outside reviewers of their drafts in PI courses, this would be done research if an instructor or other individual critiqued the draft prior order evaluation and any sources of funding that supported the research. Although usual style requirements e. The Format Cited section gives an alphabetical listing by first author's last name of the references that you actually cited in the for of your paper. Instructions for writing full citations for various sources are given in on separate page. A complete format list for virtually all types of publication may be found in Huth and others.
Do not label this section "Bibliography". A primary contains references that you may have read but order not specifically cited in the text. Bibliography sections research found in paper and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers.
Format and Instructions for research full citations of sources. An Appendix contains for that is non-essential to understanding of the paper, but may present information that further report a point without burdening the body of the presentation. An appendix is an optional part of the paper, and is only rarely found in sections papers. Each Appendix should be identified by a Roman sections in sequence, e. Each appendix should contain different material. Some examples of material that might be put in an appendix not an exhaustive list:. Figures and Tables in Appendices. Figures and Tables are often found research an appendix. These should be formatted as discussed previously see Tables and Figuresbut are numbered writing a separate sequence from those found in the body of the paper. So, the first Figure in the appendix would be Figure 1, the first Table would be For 1, and so forth.